Zuska Disease

Women who develop a painful and tender lump under the nipple, with an associated purulent discharge may be suffering from Zuska disease, which is a discharging abscess under the nipple. It is a rare complication of breastfeeding or nipple injury. The abscess may discharge through the nipple or an adjacent…

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Xerogram

A Xerogram is produced using xerography, a now rarely used form of x-ray in which a dry powder is used to create the x-ray image rather than a wet film or even more recently digital images. They were widely used in the 1970s for breast mammograms to reduce the radiation dose, but modern…

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Wet Nurse

A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds another woman’s baby. A mother is unable to breast feed her own baby for numerous reasons that can include health issues, inadequate breast milk production or personal reasons (such as social/career restraints). This mother can arrange with another woman who is post-pregnancy and is…

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Virilisation

Virilisation occurs when a woman develops male characteristics such as facial hair, body hair (hirsutism) and loses female characteristics such as menstruation and develops poor breast tone. The usual cause is a tumour of the adrenal gland or adrenal hyperplasia.

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Vinca Alkaloids

The vinca alkaloids are a class of medications that are used as injections or infusions to treat leukaemia, some lung cancers, advanced breast cancer (vinorelbine), blood disorders, Hodgkin’s disease and some other forms of cancer. They include vindesine, vinorelbine, vincristine and vinblastine. The active ingredients were originally derived from the…

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Ultrasound

Ultrasound is based on the fact that high-frequency sound wave bounce off tissues of different density at different rates. For example, bone reflects back nearly all sound waves that hit it, whereas fluids allow the waves to pass through. Sound waves are bounced off the organ being investigated, and the…

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Turner Syndrome

The Turner syndrome (XO syndrome) is a rare defect in sex chromosomes. The person is born with only one X chromosome (XO), and no matching X or Y sex chromosome. The sex chromosomes are named X and Y. Normally two X chromosomes (XX) occur in a female, and one of…

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Trophic Hormones

Trophic hormones are given as: injections to aid infertility; to prevent miscarriages; to stimulate sperm production in men; to control breast pain due to hormone imbalances; to start puberty in cases where it has been delayed; to control some patients with asthma and arthritis. There are a number of rarer…

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Trilostane

Trilostane is an unusual medication that is used to treat two very different conditions – breast cancer and excess activity of the adrenal gland (hyperaldosteronism or Conn syndrome). It must not to be used in pregnancy, breastfeeding, children or if suffering from severe kidney or liver disease. Use trilostane with…

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Trastuzumab

Better known by its trade name of Herceptin, Trastuzumab is a synthetic antibody that was introduced in 1998 and targets breast cancer cells that are HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu) positive. Herceptin attaches itself to the HER2 protein receptors on the surface of cancer cells and slows the…

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