Cabergoline

Cabergoline is a medication with a wide range of uses from treating Parkinson disease to stopping breast milk production and reducing excess production of the hormone prolactin. It must be used with caution in heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease and peptic ulcer disease. It may aggravate some psychiatric conditions…

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Cancer Associated Antigen

Blood tests are available for specific antigens that are produced against some types of cancer (e.g. breast, pancreas, liver, colon, ovary, uterus and prostate cancer). The most commonly ordered of these tests is the prostate specific antigen (PSA). Cancer associated antigen (CA or carbohydrate antigen) tests are unreliable as a…

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Casein

Casein is the natural protein found in the breast milk of all mammals. It contains all essential amino acids.

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Chiari-Frommel Syndrome

Chiari-Frommel syndrome is a late complication of pregnancy and breastfeeding, usually caused by a tumour in the hormone controlling pituitary gland (situated under the brain), but there are other rare causes. The menstrual periods of affected women fail to restart after breastfeeding has finished and they cannot stop their production…

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Chlorambucil

The alkyllater medication chlorambucil is used as a tablet to treat: leukaemia, breast cancer, ovary cancer, Hodgkin disease, lymphoma other conditions. The dosage is complex and must be individualised by a doctor for each patient. Chlorambucil must not be used in pregnancy unless the life of the mother is at…

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Colostrum

Colostrum is an early milk produced few days before labor by different mammals. It is rich in antibodies to protect the baby. It is also rich in protein and low in fat.

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Cosmetic Surgery

Any form of surgery that is performed solely to improve the appearance of a person is referred to as cosmetic surgery. It may vary from removing an ugly mole or a nose reshaping (rhinoplasty) to a breast augmentation or a tummy tuck (abdominoplasty). It is often performed to remove the…

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C-Reactive Protein

C-Reactive protein (CRP) is released from most tissue that is inflamed or under stress. It is a non-specific test but usually indicates significant disease. The normal amount found in the blood is less than 5 mg/L (less than 5 µg/mL). Higher levels indicate: the presence of inflammation anywhere in the…

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Cystadenoma

A cystadenoma is a combination of an adenoma (a tumour involving glandular tissue) and a cyst. They are a common abnormality of the breast. They are further subdivided depending on the type of fluid contained in the cysts.

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Cystosarcoma Phyllodes

Cystosarcoma phyllodes (a phyllodes tumour) is a rare form of breast tumour. It is often but may be . It arises from a in the breast. The tumour takes its name from its leaf-likestructure as seen under a microscope. The word phyllodes means leaf in Greek. Affected women have a firm breast…

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