Folic Acid (Vitamin B9/Vitamin M)

Folic acid is sometimes classed as vitamin B9 or vitamin M. It is essential for the basic functioning of the nucleus in cells, and extra amounts may be needed during pregnancy, breast feeding, and in the treatment of anaemia and alcoholism. It assists in the uptake and utilisation of iron.…

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Face Presentation

Normally the baby presents the crown (top) of its head in the opening of the uterus during birth, with the neck bent and the chin on the chest. This lets the smallest diameter of the head pass through the birth canal. In a very small number of cases, the neck…

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Fallopian Tube

The two Fallopian tubes (oviducts) that make up part of a woman’s reproductive system are named after Gabriello Fallopio, a 16th Century Italian doctor and anatomist who lectured at the University of Padua. One Fallopian tube (Fallopian salpinx) leads from each ovary to the uterus. They are about 10-12.5 cm…

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Foetal Position

During labour, the position of the foetal head is described in a standard way by relating the lowest part of the foetal head to the four quadrants of the mother’s pelvis (left, right, anterior, posterior). The presenting part of the baby may be the back of the head – occiput…

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Foetomaternal Haemorrhage

During pregnancy, the blood circulation through the foetus (baby) and the placenta is totally separate to the blood circulation in the mother. The circulation in the foetus and placenta is maintained by the beating of the foetal heart. It is not unusual for a small amount of blood to leak…

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Foetus in foetu

Foetus in foetu is a very rare condition in which one foetus grows inside another. The two foetuses are effectively twins. Usually the internal foetus is deformed, incapable of independent existence and very small but may appear as a noncancerous mass that causes symptoms at birth or later in life.

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Forceps Delivery

Babies are sometimes reluctant to enter into the world and must be assisted out by a doctor. Forceps have been used for 150 years to help the baby’s head through the pelvis. They can be used not just to help pull out the child, but to turn the head into…

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Foetus Small

If during pregnancy a foetus is thought to be smaller than it should be for the length of the pregnancy, doctors may be referred to the problem as intrauterine growth retardation. This may be assessed both clinically and by ultrasound. This failure of foetus to achieve its full growth potential…

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Foetus

A baby in a mother’s womb is called a foetus after three months of pregnancy, and appears like a perfectly formed but tiny baby. Before this it is referred to as an embryo. The foetus floats in a fluid filled sack-like a water filled balloon. It drinks the fluid, and…

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