Here are some specific diets and the types of foods that the diets include and avoid:
- low protein diet – one that may be used in patients with liver or kidney failure. There is a restriction on the intake of meats, nuts, eggs and dairy products.
- low purine diet – this diet may be used in patients with recurrent attacks of gout. Proteins break down to purines and then uric acid, the cause of gout.
The diet restricts the intake of meat, poultry, fish and offal (liver, kidneys etc.).
Dairy products and eggs are acceptable.
- low residue diet – this diet will produce minimal amounts of faeces, and is used for patients with irritable bowels and before bowel surgery.
Foods allowed include tender meat, poultry, fish, eggs, white bread, pasta, clear soups, tea and coffee.
Foods not allowed include nuts, fruit, fried foods, curries, cereals, vegetables, fruit juice, milk and jams.
- low sodium diet – this diet is used in patients with high blood pressure and kidney diseases.
Foods allowed include eggs, skim milk, beef, chicken, lamb, pork, fish, potatoes, spices, green vegetables and fresh fruit.
Avoid processed foods, shellfish, ham, bacon, tinned or packaged meats, margarine, salted breads, red vegetables (eg. carrots, beetroot) and most frozen foods.
- low cholesterol diet – foods allowed include vegetables, chicken breast, cereals, margarine, fruit, nuts, dark chocolate, fish, olive oil, lean meat, pasta, skim milk, wine and beer.
Foods to avoid include sausages, hamburger meat, meat pies, mince, chicken skin and legs, pizza, offal (liver, kidneys, tripe), roasts (particularly that lovely crispy baked surface), game meat, lamb chops, calamari, prawns, milk chocolate, eggs and egg products, oysters and all dairy products (cream, milk, butter, yoghurt, cheese, custard).